Thursday, July 3, 2008

Workflow Management System (1)

I think a workflow management system should be implemented among enterprises to obtain automation in the work. Many people tries to ask the features and functionality a Workflow Management System in the real system. Well, what a great subject for my next post. So let's try to figure out when an application is a Workflow Management System and when it is not.

What is Workflow?
Workflow can be described simply as the movement of documents and tasks through a business process. Workflow can be a sequential progression of work activities or a complex set of processes each taking place concurrently, eventually impacting each other according to a set of rules, routes, and roles.A number of process-modeling techniques are available to define the detailed routing and processing requirements of a typical workflow. An example of one such method is the Decision-chain process model. This technique uses milestones and decision points to map out the process. An other method is the Event-flow process model which depicts the process as a chain of manual and automatic events and allows for the inclusion of considerable detail.

Workflow Management Systems
Workflow Management Systems allow organizations to define and control the various activities associated with a business process. In addition, many management systems also allow a business the opportunity to measure and analyze the execution of the process so that continuous improvements can be made. Such improvements may be short-term (e.g., reallocation of tasks to better balance the workload at any point in time) or long-term (e.g., redefining portions of the workflow process to avoid bottlenecks in the future). Most workflow systems also integrate with other systems used by the organization: document management systems, databases, e-mail, office automation products, Geographic Information Systems, production applications, etc. This integration provides structure to a process which employs a number of otherwise independent systems. It can also provide a method (such as a project folder) for organizing documents from diverse sources.

Typical Features
Listed below are some typical features associated with many Workflow Management Systems. If anyone of you think the list is not complete or some features do not belong to a Workflow Management System, please let me know.
1. Process Definition Tool: A graphical or textual tool for defining the business process. Each activity within the process is associated with a person or a computer application. Rules are created to determine how the activities progress across the workflow and which controls are in place to govern each activity. Some workflow systems allow dynamic changes to the business process by selected people with administrative clearance.

2. Simulation, Prototyping and Piloting: Some systems allow workflow simulation or create prototype and/or pilot versions of a particular workflow so that it can be tried and tested on a limited basis before it goes into production.
Task Initiation & Control: The business process defined above is initiated and the appropriate human and IT resources are scheduled and/or engaged to complete each activity as the process progresses.

3. Rules Based Decision Making: Rules are created for each step to determine how workflow-related data is to be processed, routed, tracked, and controlled. As an example, one rule might generate email notifications when a condition has been met. Another rule might implement conditional routing of documents and tasks based on the content of fields. Still another might invoke a particular application to view data.

4. Document Routing: In simple systems, this might be accomplished by passing a file or folder from one recipient to another (e.g., an email attachment). In more sophisticated systems, it would be accomplished by checking the documents in an out of a central repository. Both systems might allow for redlining of the documents so that each person in the process can add their own comments without affecting the original document.
Invocation of Applications to View and Manipulate Data: Word-processors, spreadsheets, GIS systems, production applications, etc. can be invoked to allow workers to create, update, and view data and documents.

5. Worklists: These allow each worker to quickly identify their current tasks along with such things as due date, goal date, priority, etc. In some systems, anticipated workload can be displayed as well. These systems analyze where jobs are in the workflow and how long each step should take, and then estimate when various tasks will reach an individual’s desk.

6. Task Automation: Computerized tasks can be automatically invoked. This might include such things as letter writing, email notices, or execution of production applications. Task automation often requires customization of the basic workflow product.

7. Event Notification: Staff and/or managers can be notified when certain milestones occur, when workload increases, etc.

8. Distribution (Routing) Lists for Messages/Mail: Distribution lists can be created for sending ad-hoc messages among the staff.

9. Process Monitoring: The system can provide valuable information on current workload, future workload, bottlenecks (current or potential), turn-around time, missed deadlines, etc.
Access to Information over the World Wide Web: Some systems provide Web interfacing modules in order to provide workflow information to remote customers, suppliers, collaborators, or staff.

10. Tracking and Logging of Activities: Information about each step can be logged. This might include such things as start and completion times, person(s) assigned to the task, and key status fields. This information might later be used to analyze the process or to provide evidence that certain tasks were in fact completed.

11. Administration and Security: A number of functions are usually provided to identify the participants and their respective privileges as well as to administer routines associated with any application (e.g., file back-ups, archiving of logs).

I think the list above captures more or less all features which are associated with Workflow Management Systems nowadays. The discussion topic could have relation with Business Process Management System, as the development of Business Process Reengineering in the era 90's. Hope it can give more ideas to your enterprise.

references : An Introduction to Workflow Management System, Center for Technology in Gevernment University at Albany / SUNY

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